【原文】 不淫意于法之外，不为惠于法之内也。动无非法者，所以禁过而外私也。威不两错，政不二门。以法治国则举错而已。 《明法》
【英译】 Having no licentious desires that transgressed the law, nor bestowing personal favors within the law. By seeing to it that actions were in violation of the law, they were able to prevent transgressions and exclude selfish behavior. Majesty cannot be wielded by two persons; government cannot have two gates. When a ruler uses laws to govern his country, he need only put them in place and that is all.
【英译】 When the former kings made their tours, going out in the spring to check if there were any lack of basic necessities for agriculture was called a spring tour. Going out in the fall to provide aid wherever people were short of provisions was called an end-of-the-year excursion. Now, when the army marches[along with the ruler], taking grain and provisions from the people, it is called being destructive. When the ruler follows his pleasure and does not repent, it is called being reckless. The former kings engaged in the business of spring tours and end of the year excursions on behalf of others. They, did not engage in destructive or reckless practices for their personal pleasure
法令之不行 万民之不治 贫富之不齐也
【英译】Now, if people are too rich, salaries cannot be used to employ them; If they are too poor, punishments cannot be used to intimidate them. When laws and orders are not executed and the multitude is not well governed, it is because great inequality exists between rich and poor.
【英译】If the legal system is not open to discussion, people will not unite to promote their self-interest. If there is no pardoning of punishments and executions, people will not take chances to do what they like. If the awarding of ranks and salaries is not delegated to others, subordinate officials will not rebel against their sovereign. When these three have been assimilated by officialdom, they will become the law. When they have been put into effect throughout the country, they will become a matter of accepted practice. Beyond this no effort will be required for good order to prevail.
【英译】If the ruler does not conform to the law, government affairs will lack a constant standard. If he conforms to what is unlawful, his orders will not be carried out, it is because the orders do not conform to the law. If they conform to the law yet are not carried out, it is because those who issue the orders are not discerning in their judgment. If they are discerning yet the orders are not carried out, it is because the rewards are paltry and punishments light. If the rewards are generous and the punishments severe yet the orders are not carried out, it is because they are not reliable. If the rewards and punishments are reliable yet the orders are not carried out, it is because the ruler does not set an example by obeying them himself.
【英译】The true prince sits at the source of the myriad of things and is the one who assigns tasks for all living beings. He selects the worthy, assesses the talented , and treats them according to the law. Having elevated and obtained the service of these men, he sits back and watches over his people, and his wealth is more than can be absorbed.
【英译】If the people can provide them with leisure and freedom from care, the people will be willing to endure trouble and toil for him. If he can provide them with riches and honor, they will be willing to endure poverty and low position for him. If he can ensure their existence and provide them with security , they will be willing to endure danger and disaster for him. If he enable them to live and propagate, they will be willing to endure death and annihilation for him.
【英译】 Men in ancient times were hostile to each other, and their hearts were cruel. Therefore laws were made for them. Laws emanated from rules of propriety, and these in turn from the requirements for good order. Good order and customary rules of behavior constitute the moral way. All beginnings await the security that comes when good order and the rules of propriety prevail.
【原文】 圣君任法而不任智，任数而不任说，任公而不任私，任大道而不任小物，然后身佚而天下治。 《任法》
【汉解】 圣明君主依靠法度而不依靠智谋，依靠政策而不依靠议论，依靠公而不依靠私，依靠大道而不依靠小事，结果是自身安闲而天下太平。【英译】The sage prince relies on established laws, not on expertise; on statistical methods, not on empty talk; on impartiality, not on self- serving arguments; on the great principles of ruleship, not on trivial actions. Afterward, he may take his ease, yet the empire will be well governed.
【原文】 凡牧民者，欲民之修小礼、行小义、饰小廉、谨小耻、禁微邪、此厉民之道也。民之修小礼、行小义、饰小廉、谨小耻、禁微邪、治之本也。 《权修》
【英译】Since those who shepherd the people desire them even in minor matters to be meticulous in observing propriety, practicing righteousness, cultivating integrity, and displaying a sense of shame, they must prohibit even the slightest beginning of evil. Such is the way to discipline the people. When the people, even in minor matters, are meticulous in observing propriety, practicing righteousness, cultivating integrity, and displaying a sense of shame, and even the slightest beginning of evil are prohibited, such is the basis of good order.
【英译】All those who posses territory and shepherd people must pay heed to the four seasons and watch over granaries. If the state has an abundance of wealth, people will come from afar. If the land has been opened for cultivation, They will settle down. When the granaries are full, they will know propriety and moderation. When their clothing and food is adequate, They will know the distinction between honor and shame. If those on high exercises proper measure in dress and expenditure, the six relationships will be secure. If the four cardinal virtues prevail, the prince’s orders will be carried out.
厚爱利 足以亲 明智礼 足以教
【原文】 厚爱利，足以亲之。明智礼，足以教之。上身服以先之。审度量以闲之。乡置师以说道之，然后申之以宪令，劝之以庆赏，振之以刑罚，故百姓皆说为善，则暴乱之行无由至矣。 《权修》
【英译】Being generous with love and benefits is sufficient to win the allegiance of the people. Manifesting wisdom and propriety is sufficient to instruct them. However, the sovereign must himself adhere to the law in order to serve as an example for them and see that there is proper measure in exactions and expenditures in order to guard against excesses. Place governors in the local districts to exhort and guide the people. Thereafter, keep them informed with laws and orders, encourage them with rewards, and overawe them with punishments. Then, since the hundred surnames will all be happy in doing good, violent and disorderly conduct will have no cause to arise.
积多者其食多 积寡者其食寡 无积者不食
【原文】 凡牧民者。以其所积者食之。不可不审也。其积多者其食多，其积寡者其食寡，无积者不食。或有积而不食者，则民离上；有积多而食寡者，则民不力；有积寡而食多者，则民多轴；有无积而徒食者，则民偷幸； 《权修》
【英译】Those who would shepherd the people must pay careful attention to see that stipends accord with achievements. Those whose achievements are great should be given much. Those whose achievements are few should be given less. Those who have no achievement should be given nothing. Should it happen that those who have achievements receive nothing , the people will turn away from the sovereign. Should those whose achievements are great receive less, the people will not exert themselves. Should those whose achievements are few receive more, the people will resort to deceitfulness. Should those who have no achievements receive stipends for nothing, the people will merely trust to luck.
察能授官 班禄赐予 使民之机
【原文】 故离上不力，多轴偷幸，举事不成，应敌不用。故曰：察能授官，班禄赐予，使民之机也。 《权修》
【英译】Now if the people turn away from the sovereign, do not exert themselves, resort to deceitfulness, or merely trust to luck, they will neither complete their sovereign’s undertakings nor be of any use in opposing the enemy. Therefore it is said: “Investigate ability when bestowing offices; graduate the salaries when making awards. Such is the crucial factor when employing the people.
【英译】The prince should be concerned about three things: The first is that a man’s virtue is not equal to his position. The second is that his achievement is not equal to his salary. The third is that his ability is not equal to his office. These three fundamental areas of concern are a source of order or disorder.
民之所利立之 所害除之 则民人从
【英译】The best way to employ arms is not by demanding the enemy’s territory but by applying punishments to their prince alone. Institute righteousness and apply it in your victories. Maximize your prestige and make it real by exercising benevolence. Observe these two and afterward you will conquer the minds of the enemy and encompass all within the seas.
【英译】The ways of winning the hearts of men, nothing is as good as benefiting them. Among the ways of benefiting them, nothing is as good as teaching them. Therefore, the sovereign who is skilled in conducting his government has well-developed fields and his capital city and towns are well populated. His court is calm and his offices well run. Public laws are carried out while individual crookedness is prevented. The granaries are full and the jails empty. Worthy men come forward, while wicked people retreat.
【英译】The demise of states and the defeat of individuals stem from their strengths. Therefore, those who are skilled in swimming die in dammed up ponds. Those who are killed in shooting die in fields. Life depends on having food to eat. Good government depends on managing affairs. The many will be victorious over the few, the speedy over the slow, the brave over the cowardly, the wise over the stupid, the good over the bad, those who practice righteousness over those who do not, and those who follow the way of Heaven over those who do not. When all seven of these victories are appreciated and brought together, a great many people will be able to live out their full lives.
【英译】The former kings gained control over distant peoples of the realm by using the rules of propriety. For those close at hand, they relied on personal contact. Personal contact and the rules of propriety were the means by which they gained control over the realm. “Far” and “near” were the means by which they differentiated forms of intercourse.
【英译】If the orders have already been issued but punishments are not meted out to those who disregard them, the people are taught to be disobedient. If the people are disobedient, the strong establish themselves in power. If the strong establish themselves, the position of the ruler will be endangered. Therefore, it is said:”Legal statutes, regulations, and procedures must be patterned on the moral way. The orders must be publicized and made clear, and the rewards and punishments must be made reliable and absolute.” These are the standards for bringing order to people.
【英译】Orders are more precious than jewels. The altars to Land and Grain take precedence over family relations. The laws are more important than the people. Prestige and power are more to be valued than ranks and salaries. Thus, do not disregard orders because of precious jewels. Do not consider your altars to Land and Grain secondary because of family relations. Do not twist laws and statutes because of love for the people. Do not share your prestige and power because of ranks and salaries. Therefore it is said:”Your position of authority is not something to be granted to others.
【英译】Therefore punishment alone is not enough to terrify the minds of the people, nor is killing sufficient to make their hearts submissive. Thus, if punishments are numerous yet the minds of the people are not terrified, orders will not be carried out. If killing abounds, yet the hearts of the people are not submissive, the position the sovereign will be endangered. Therefore if the prince complies with their four desires, even those in distant places will of themselves rally around him. But if he imposes on them the four things they hate, then even those who are near at hand will turn against him. Thus knowing that “to give is to receive” is the most precious thing in government.
【英译】Therefore he who understands the times may be appointed head of an office. He who shows no partiality may be placed in charge of administration. He who examines the times, finds out what is applicable to them, and so is able fill his offices with men of ability, may be elevated as a prince. He who procrastinates will be too late in his undertakings. He who is stingy with wealth will lose those close to him. He who trusts petty men will lose gentlemen of worth.
【英译】 It is ever so that the way to maintain good order in a state is to be certain, first of all, to make its people prosperous. When the people are prosperous, they are easy to keep in order. When the people are poor, they are difficult to keep in order. How do we know this? If people are prosperous, they will feel content in their local districts and treat their homes as very important. If so, they will respect their sovereign and be leery of committing crimes, then, they will be easy to keep in order. If the people are poor, they will feel threatened in their districts and treat their homes lightly, they will dare to denigrate their sovereign and violate his prohibitions. If this occurs, they will be difficult to keep in order.
【英译】 Whoever shepherds the people, must always be aware of their suffering, express his concern by being benevolent, and avoid terrifying them with punishments or restraining them with excessive force. If you pay attention to these four, it will be sufficient to maintain good order among the people.
誉不虚出 患不独生 福不择家 祸不索人
【英译】Fame does not spring from nothing, nor does calamity have a single cause; good fortune does not seek out individual families, nor is disaster tied to individual men—the same idea is being expressed. Matters will certainly become clear if one is able to use what one has personally heard and seen to reflect on this.
【英译】Selecting men on the basis of law and did not depend on their own judgments when elevating them. Assessing merit on the basis of law and did not depend on their own judgments to make decisions. Therefore, the able could not be concealed and the corrupt could not disguise their actions. Those who would praise the unworthy were not able to advance; those who would slander the worthy were not able to retreat. Such being the case, ruler and minister were clearly separated, and since this separation was clear, good order was easily maintained. Even though the ruler did not himself conduct activities below, by upholding the law, things were properly done.
为人臣者 比官中之事 而不言其外
【英译】The true prince cultivates a way of remaining above the various offices and not discussing their internal affairs. True ministers coordinate the internal affairs of the various offices but do not discuss matters lying outside them. If the way of the prince is not clear, those who receive his orders will be in doubt. If political power and procedure are not unified, those who practice righteousness will be led away.
【英译】Above there is the auspiciousness of Heaven, below the suitable of Earth, and in the middle the submissiveness of man…..Pay attention to the seasons of Heaven to initiate undertakings. Use undertakings to move the people, the people to move the state, and the state to move the realm. Now, once the people are certain to know the meaning of political power, what you initiate will be accomplished. Therefore, it is said:” Political power must be based on these considerations.”
【英译】The ways of winning the hearts of men, nothing is as good as benefiting them. Among the ways of benefiting them, nothing is as good as teaching them. Therefore, the sovereign who is skilled in conducting his government has well-developed fields and his capital city and towns are well populated. His court is calm and his offices well run. Public laws are carried out while individual crookedness is prevented. The granaries are full and the jails empty. Worthy men come forward while wicked people retreat.
二0二0 年初，正当中华儿女辞旧迎新，欢度鼠年春节大迁徙的时候，一场突如其来的新型冠状病毒开始在有着1200百万人口的城市武汉肆虐。为了 [详细]